The massacre of more than two dozen churchgoers - the youngest of whom was just 18 months old - occurred amid an ongoing "domestic situation" involving the gunman and his relatives, some of whom had attended the church, law enforcement officials said Monday.
Also on Monday, the Air Force launched an internal review into why it failed to provide key information to the FBI that should have prevented the attacker from purchasing firearms. While serving in the Air Force, the gunman - Devin Patrick Kelley, 26 - was convicted by a general court-martial on two charges of domestic assault.
The Air Force acknowledged that his offense was not entered into a national database, which meant he was able to pass background checks to purchase weapons. Kelley was convicted on charges of assaulting his then-wife and stepson and served 12 months in confinement before being released in 2014 with a bad-conduct discharge.
"Federal law prohibited him from buying or possessing firearms after this conviction," Ann Stefanek, an Air Force spokeswoman, said in a statement.
Precisely how Kelley obtained his guns remained a key question for investigators since Sunday's attack as authorities have how Kelley, who spent a year behind bars, was able to purchase guns and pass state background checks for jobs.
While authorities have not publicly identified a motive for the attack, they emphasized that the shooting did not appear to be fueled by racial or religious issues, as has been the case with other rampages at U.S. houses of worship. Instead, they pointed to the gunman's issues with his relatives, saying that Kelley had been sending "threatening texts" to his mother-in-law, who was not at the First Baptist Church when he opened fire on the congregation Sunday morning.
"This was not racially motivated, it wasn't over religious beliefs," Freeman Martin, a regional director with the Texas Department of Public Safety, said at a news briefing Monday. "There was a domestic situation going on within the family and the in-laws."
Kelley's anger boiled into what appeared to be a planned assault on the tiny church in a tiny town outside San Antonio, the latest mass attack to cut down Americans in seemingly safe public spaces. Kelley killed 26 people and injured 20 others, most of whom were praying in the pews when they faced a barrage of bullets from an assault-style rifle.
The painful stories of the lives lost to a mass shooting have become a familiar ritual, and this community church in the Texas countryside was no different. Among the dead here were eight relatives spanning three generations in a single family; the victims included toddlers, teenagers, the elderly. While authorities initially said the victims ranged in age from 5 to 72, they said Monday that those people were the wounded, and that the death toll encompassed even younger and older people.
"Inside the church, the deceased actually ranged from 18 months to 77 years of age," Martin said.
The family that lost eight relatives said one of them was a 1-year-old girl. Among the 20 wounded Sunday at the church, 10 remained hospitalized in critical condition, Martin said. Almost everyone at the service was injured in some way.
Texas authorities on Monday officially identified Kelley, of New Braunfels, about 35 miles north of Sutherland Springs, as the attacker. They said the former Air Force member shot at the churchgoers with a Ruger assault-style rifle before a local man who lives near the church heard what was happening and began firing his own rifle at the attacker, hitting him at least once.
Kelley then dropped his rifle, jumped in his Ford Expedition SUV, and fled, Martin said.
"Our Texas hero" flagged down another young Texan, hopped into his vehicle and they chased Kelley at high speeds, Martin said.
It was "act now, ask questions later," said the truck's driver, Johnnie Langendorff.
During the chase, Kelley called his father on his cellphone to say "he had been shot and didn't think he was going to make it," Martin said. Kelley shot himself, though the exact cause of his death will be determined after an autopsy, Martin said.
Three guns were recovered Sunday, according to authorities: A Ruger rifle and two handguns, one a Glock and another a Ruger, inside Kelley's vehicle. He had purchased a total of four guns during the past four years, officials said.
Kelley had been court-martialed in 2012 and sentenced to a year in military prison for assaulting his then-spouse and her child, making him part of a long line of mass attackers or suspects with domestic violencein their pasts. He was reduced in rank and released with a bad-conduct discharge in 2014.
Texas officials said Kelley had sought and failed to obtain a permit allowing him to carry a concealed weapon after his release. He had an "unarmed private security license" akin to what a security guard at a concert would have, Martin said.
In televised interviews, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott, R, said it appeared the church was intentionally targeted, rather than chosen at random, but said there were "more unknowns than there are knowns" a day after the attack.
"By all of the facts that we seem to know, he was not supposed to have access to a gun, so how did this happen?" Abbott said in an interview Monday morning on CNN. "We are in search of answers to these questions."
Though Kelley's in-laws had attended the church, they were not there during services Sunday, and instead came to the scene after the shooting, said Joe D. Tackitt Jr., the Wilson County sheriff.
Some mass shooters lash out seemingly indiscriminately, while others target their relatives or those in their community they think are working against them.
Peter Blair, a criminal justice professor at Texas State University and executive director of the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training Center, said people who open fire in public places can have "rage welling up," and then they lash out, said
"What you typically see in active shooter attackers is an avenger-type mentality," said Blair, who co-wrote an FBI study in 2013 that examined 160 active-shooter incidents. "They're people who believe they've been wronged in some way. They get angrier and angrier and they plan the attack as a way to get people to recognize their issue."
The FBI study found that one in 10 of the shootings examined involved attackers targeting women with whom they had current or former romantic relationships.
The location of such attacks can exacerbate the toll, Blair said. The mass shootings that had the highest injury or death tolls tended to occur in places where people cannot easily escape or defend themselves, he said.
Kelley worked briefly over the summer as an unarmed night security guard at a Schlitterbahn water park in New Braunfels, the company said. He passed a Texas Department of Public Safety criminal background check before beginning work there, a spokeswoman said, though she added that Kelley was fired in July - as the season was reaching its peak - because he was "not a good fit."
He also was able to pass a background check that allowed him to work for HEB, a Texas grocery chain, in New Braunfels. Company spokeswoman Dya Campos said he worked there for two months in 2013 and quit; she was unsure of his position there.
The attack on Sunday left a staggering hole in a Texas town of fewer than 700 people.
"Nearly everyone had some type of injury," Tackitt said of the churchgoers. "I knew several people in there. It hasn't really hit yet, but it will."
Tackitt said the aftermath was "a horrific sight," adding: "You don't expect to walk into church and find mauled bodies." More than a dozen of those killed or injured in the attack were children, he said.
The massacre outside San Antonio added Sutherland Springs to the growing roster of places synonymous with a mass tragedy, and it came just a month after 58 people in Las Vegas were gunned down in the country's deadliest modern mass shooting.
In recent years, gunfire has cut down people at movie theaters, concerts, churches, nightclubs, schools and offices. After the church massacre Sunday, officials in some of the places that have endured their own tragedies - including Aurora, Colo.; San Bernardino, Calif.; Orlando; and Las Vegas - issued public statements of mourning for Sutherland Springs.
President Donald Trump appeared to try to steer the debate away from gun control after the slayings. At a news conference in Tokyo, Trump said he thought "mental health" was a possible motive, adding that it appeared the shooter was "a very deranged individual, a lot of problems for a long period of time." He did not provide further explanation.
With Trump in the midst of an overseas trip, Vice President Pence said Monday he would travel to Sutherland Springs later this week to visit with victims, their relatives and law enforcement officials.
Trump's response to incidents of mass violence in the United States has ranged from his calls for a Muslim ban after Islamic State-linked attacks in San Bernardino, California, and Orlando, Florida, to his demand for a death sentence last week for the Uzbek immigrant accused of killing eight people in Lower Manhattan last week. In the case of mass shootings involving white men, such as when Stephen Paddock killed 58 people in Las Vegas on Oct. 1, Trump declined to issue sweeping calls for new policy.
Trump said the Texas incident Sunday "isn't a guns situation," and added: "Fortunately someone else had a gun that was shooting in the opposite direction" or the rampage "would have been much worse."
No one inside the church was armed at the time of the attack, the sheriff said Monday, saying he was not surprised by that fact.
"People from this community would never think this could happen," he said.
Witnesses and officials said the gunman in Texas, dressed in all black and wearing a tactical vest, began firing an assault rifle as he approached the church. Texas state officials said Monday he also was wearing a black mask with a white skull face on it.
He killed two people outside before entering the church and spraying bullets at the congregation during morning worship, police said. Officials said he was inside for some time.
The attack tore apart families in this small community. Joe and Claryce Holcombe lost children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren all at once, a total of eight extended family members, the couple said.
Their son, Bryan Holcombe, 60, and his wife, Karla Holcombe, 58, were killed. Bryan was associate pastor for the church and was walking to preach at the pulpit when he was shot, Joe Holcombe said.
Also among the dead was their granddaughter-in-law, Crystal Holcombe, who was pregnant. She died along with her unborn child and three of her children - Emily, Megan and Greg - according to Joe Holcombe. She was at church with her husband, John Holcombe, who survived along with two of her other children.
Their grandson, Marc Daniel Holcombe, and his infant daughter, who was about a year old, also died, Joe and Claryce Holcombe said.
Frank Pomeroy, the pastor of First Baptist, and his wife, Sherri, spoke to reporters through tears.
Their 14-year-old daughter Annabelle - known as Belle - was among those killed in her father's church, although both parents were out of town at the time. But the couple lost much more than their daughter, they said.
"We ate together, we laughed together, we cried together and we worshiped together. Now most of church family is gone," Sherri Pomeroy said. "Our building is probably beyond repair, and the few of us that are left behind lost tragically yesterday. As senseless as this tragedy was, our sweet Belle would not have been able to deal with all the family she lost yesterday."
She added: "Please don't forget Sutherland Springs."
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